How encephalitis is transmitted
Tick-borne encephalitis or taiga encephalitis is an acute neurovirus infection that is transmitted by ticks. It is characterized by a sudden onset, a pronounced fever and various lesions of the central nervous system. The disease is known in two geographic variants - eastern and western encephalitis.
The causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis belongs to group B arboviruses. Among laboratory animals, white mice, cotton rats, hamsters, monkeys are most sensitive to this virus, and domestic animals include sheep, goats, piglets, horses.
The virus is very sensitive to the most common disinfectants and to the effects of high temperatures, but in the dried state can persist for many months and even several years.
Encephalitis carriers are ixodic ticks. They also serve as a reservoir in which the pathogen lives. Infection is possible even in an alimentary way, for example, by eating raw milk.For encephalitis is characterized by seasonality. The first patients, as a rule, appear in April, after which their number increases and reaches maximum values in May-June. But during July-October, there may be isolated individual cases of infection with encephalitis.
As for susceptibility, all age groups of people can become infected with encephalitis. But the most at risk are infections of individuals who, by the nature of their profession, are associated with a forest or frequently visit a forest, such as mushroom pickers.
There are two ways of infection with encephalitis - transmissible and alimentary. In the transmissible way of infection, the skin serves as the entrance gate, and in the alimentary way the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. After penetration under the skin, the latent period of the disease occurs, when the virus multiplies in the subcutaneous tissue, but as a result of dissemination can be detected in the lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract or spleen. The next stage is neural, during which the virus multiplies in the central nervous system. Hard and soft meninges are affected.
The incubation period for encephalitis is from 10 to 14 days.The onset is manifested by weakness, headache and numbness in half of the face or body, mental disorders. Fever is also observed with a temperature rise of up to 39-40.5 degrees. Vomiting, excruciating joint pain and photophobia may occur. On the part of the central nervous system, paresthesias, paresis of the extremities, convulsions, double vision and even loss of consciousness can be observed.
Hospitalization for encephalitis is required. The condition of discharge is full recovery. Special treatment is carried out horse gamma globulin, which is administered intramuscularly in a dosage of up to 6 ml. The use of human hyperimmune gamma-globulin is also possible.
Date: 09.10.2018, 08:41 / Views: 94573
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