Medical Terminology - The Basics - Lesson 1
How to Understand Medical Terminology
If you're a student of the medical or health sciences field, you'll be introduced to the world of medical language. At first glance, the jargon that medical professionals use to describe body parts and organs, procedures, and conditions can seem a bit daunting and intimidating, but is easy to pick up and master over time. See Step 1 to learn the basics of linguistics and understand medical terminology.
Obtain and use a medical dictionary.This step is optional, but highly recommended for breaking down medical jargon that many people are initially unfamiliar of. These dictionaries give the meanings to the word parts and can translate medical-language-to-English and vice versa.
Get to know the basic word parts.The first part of deciphering a medical term is to know the different components of a term.
- Root: the essential meaning of the word.
- Combining form: a root with a vowel attached to it, most commonly the letter O. This vowel is known as the combining vowel because it combines the root with the rest of the term. When writing the combining form itself, a slash ( / ) is used to separate the root and combining vowel. As long as the combining vowel links the parts together, a word can have multiple roots.
- Suffix: the end of the term that gives part of the word's meaning.
Prefix: appears at the beginning of some words to modify its meaning.
- Example 1: CARDIOLOGY meansstudy of the heart.cardi/ois the combining form (cardi + o), and-logyis the suffix.
- Example 2: POLYNEUROPATHY meansdisease of many nerves.poly-is the prefix,neur/ois the combining form (neur + o), and-pathyis the suffix.
Understand the rules that govern the use of combining vowels.
- If a suffix starts with a vowel, drop the combining vowel.
- Example 1: NEURAL meanspertaining to the nerves.neur/ois the combining form and-alis the suffix. Because the suffix starts with a vowel, the combining vowel is dropped.
- When using multiple roots, keep the combining vowels even if the second root begins with a vowel.
- Example 2: GASTROENTEROLOGIST meansa doctor specializing in the stomach and intestines.gastr/ois the first combining form,enter/ois the second, and-logistis the suffix. Note that both combining vowels are present.
- If a suffix starts with a vowel, drop the combining vowel.
To get the meaning of a word, read it from the suffix to the beginning and then across.In other words, read the suffix first, then the prefix if there is one, and finally the root.
- Example 1: HEMATOLOGY,-logy(study of) +hemat/o(blood) = study of the blood
- Example 2: HEPATITIS,-itis(inflammation of) +hepat/o(liver) = inflammation of the liver
- Example 3: INTRAVENOUS,-ous(pertaining to) +intra-(within) +ven/o(vein) = pertaining to within a vein
- Example 4: TACHYCARDIA,-ia(condition of) +tachy-(fast) +cardi/o(heart) = condition of a fast heartbeat
To make a word, infer the meanings of various word parts and combine them to make a term.
- Example 1: Removal of the uterus = HYSTERECTOMY,-ectomy(removal, excision) +hyster/o(uterus)
- Example 2: Pertaining to within a muscle = INTRAMUSCULAR,-ar(pertaining to) +intra-(within) +muscul/o(muscle)
- Example 3: Cancerous tumour = CARCINOMA,-oma(tumour) +carcin/o(cancerous)
- Example 4: Condition of an overactive thyroid gland = HYPERTHYROIDISM,-ism(condition, process) +thyroid/o(thyroid gland) +hyper-(higher-than-normal)
Practice proper pronunciation.In the medical world, correct pronunciation is not only important for maintaining your professionalism, but it also helps to prevent misinterpretation and confusion caused by differing pronunciations. There are many words that have unique pronunciations. You may find that how you read a word in your mind isn't how it's supposed to sound like. The following is a brief list of words and their intended pronunciations; boldface capitals indicates the syllable that is stressed:
- arthroscopy: ar-THROS-ko-pe
- electroencephalogram: e-lek-tro-en-SEF-ah-lo-gram
- erythrocyte: eh-RITH-ro-site
- hematoma: he-mah-TOH-mah
- hypertrophy: hi-PER-tro-fe
- laryngeal: lah-RIN-je-alorlah-rin-JE-al
- metastasis: meh-TAS-ta-sis
- oophorectomy: oh-of-oh-REK-to-meoroh-oh-for-EK-to-me
- relapse: reh-LAPS
- tachypnea: ta-KIP-ne-ah
Don't get confused over similar word parts and terms.Some word parts and terms are similar in both spelling and pronunciation but opposite in meaning. It's important to differentiate between these to avoid a misleading, possibly harmful diagnosis or treatment plan in your career. Examples of these are:
- hyper-(higher-than-normal) andhypo-(lower-than-normal)
- sarc/o(flesh) andsacr/o(sacrum)
- -tomy(incision, cutting into),-ectomy(excision, removal of), and-stomy(opening)
- -plasia(formation),-phagia(eating or swallowing), and-phasia(speech)
- hematuria(blood in the urine) anduremia(high levels of urea in the blood)
- Menorrhea(normal menstrual flow) andmenorrhagia(abnormally heavy menstruation)
QuestionIs medical terminology read from right to left?Community AnswerNo, medical terminology is read from left to right.Thanks!
- Some terms have word parts in which their individual meanings differ slightly from the definition of the term itself.
- Example 1: ANEMIA isa deficiency in the amount of hemoglobin (the iron-containing protein in blood) and/or the number of red blood cells, resulting in reduced oxygenation to other cells of the body. Literally, the term means "condition of no blood", because of the word partsan-(no, not, without) +-emia(blood condition).
Video: Understanding Medical Terminology
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