Jacobin embroidery, hooks, artistic surface: dot the i's
The beauty of Jacobin embroidery: amazing fruits, bright flowers, fantasy birds - fascinates. Let's figure out how it all came about.
So, as a rule, the following definition is given: Jacobin embroidery is a type of embroidery with wool or embroidery with hooks (crewel, crewelwork). That is, it all started with embroidery with wool, which appeared more than a millennium ago, this is one of the types of decorative embroidery in mixed technique, using several dozen stitches, none of which is used only in this kind of embroidery. However, where, when and how exactly wool embroidery originated is unknown: the materials for its creation (linen and wool) were available everywhere, and the embroidery itself is extremely popular in many countries around the world. Thus, in Northern Mongolia, a fragment of embroidery was found with wool depicting a nomadic warrior, dating from the 1st century BC.
The earliest well-preserved and extant work in the technique of hooking is the tapestry from Bayeux (Bayeux); its length is about 70 m (there is a fragment in the picture), 8 shades are used, from the seams - most of them are made with one-sided stitch, chain stitch, stalked. Tapestry dates from the XV century. and represents the chronicle of William the Conqueror.
It is obvious that these patterns of embroidery in wool are not similar to the familiar Jacobin embroidery today. These embroideries are also called patterns of artistic smoothness (i.e., hooks and artistic smoothness are synonymous), but, nevertheless, the term “artistic smoothness” does not necessarily imply the use of woolen threads (however, others were hardly as accessible) .
The growth of wealth, starting from the XVI-XVII centuries, led to an increase in development and, consequently, an increase in the need for decorative textiles. Embroidery decorated a variety of things: from wardrobe items to interior textiles and furniture items. The ornament embroidered with wool had an important insulating function.
The English Queen Elizabeth I was a big fan of embroidery, with her the Guild of Embroiderers (men!) Arose, which was called “Guardians and Guardians of Society, and Art, and the Sacraments of Embroidery in the City of London”.Maria Stuart succumbed to the fashionable embroidery hobby, and she spent many days imprisoning handicrafts. By the way, in her works there is the image of a red cat playing with a mouse, referring to the deceit of Queen Elizabeth I in relation to Mary Stuart. Well, the MR monogram means Maria Regina.
Around the same time, metamorphosis occurs in part of the ornament. During this period, Indian fabrics of bright colors with the image of animals, birds, plants began to be imported to England. It is these ornaments that formed the basis for the Jacobin embroidery, as we know it at the present time. Jacobin embroidery received the name from the name of King Jacob I and began to be characterized by recognizable ornate floral designs, fancy animals and birds.
Early Jacobin embroideries were one-color and were made using a limited set of stitches: stalked seam, back needle stitch, chain stitch, and stitch stitches.
With the appearance and spread of dyes, the colors of Jacobin embroidery began to imitate the colors of oriental fabrics; deep shades of blue-green-bordovoy gamma are recognizable now.A variety of seams of Jacobin embroidery has also increased: a tint smooth surface, a smooth surface with long and short stitches, French knots, small parallel stitches, a seam loop.
Thus, Jacobin embroidery is a type of embroidery with wool and has a distinctive feature - an ornament that imitates oriental fabrics, which over time became brighter and more complex in terms of the number of stitches used.
Further development of embroidery received an impetus due to the growing availability of needles.
Traditional Jacobin embroidery ornaments: the tree of life, Elizabethan curls, wavy edges.
In the middle of the 19th century, the artistic surface and, in particular, Jacobin embroidery were again in fashion. Embroidery motifs echo the work of William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. In 1872, the Royal School of Embroidery was founded, and not without the help of William Morris himself and his daughter Mary. Hand embroidery of the School reached unprecedented heights and successfully competed with industrial embroidery.
The traditions of Jacobin embroidery were transferred to New England. At first, simpler designs and the dominance of blue hues were characteristic of American Jacobin embroidery (indigo dyes were the most affordable).
With the increasing availability of materials, the ornaments also changed, these are still recognizable plant elements, animals and birds; they are distinguished from English by greater realism, greater free space.
Today, Jacobin embroidery remains popular, as the basis used a thick fabric that can hold a fairly heavy embroidery (matting, silk dupion, cotton fabric for quilting), as the thread - not only wool, but also cotton, silk and metallized yarn.
Date: 15.10.2018, 11:43 / Views: 84342
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